Report of activities 1966-1968
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, is an independent, international research institute. It was set up on 1 July 1966 by the Swedish Parliament as a foundation.
The idea of establishing a peace research institute in Sweden was proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander in a speech in August 1964 commemorating Sweden's 150 years of unbroken peace. In November 1964 a Royal Commission was appointed to explore the proposal. The chairman of the Commission was Mrs. Alva Myrdal now a member of the Swedish Government with special responsi-bilities in the field of disarmament.
The Royal Commission reported in January 1965 in favour of the creation of such an institute in Sweden. The Commission was convinced of the potential value of peace research and felt that Sweden was a natural place for it to be undertaken. The Swedish Government accepted the Commission's conclusions.
The statutes of the Institute have been laid down by the Swedish Government and its funds are provided by the Swedish Parliament. SIPRI's annual budget for the current financial year is 2.55 million Swedish crowns or about US $500,000.
The Institute is, however, independent of the Government in its operations. These are the responsibility of an international Governing Board.
The policy adopted by the Board has been that the Institute should study problems in a pragmatic way and that it should select ques- tions which are important to the decision-makers in current inter- national politics. The Institute, following the recommendations of the Royal Commission, has so far concentrated on problems of dis-armament and arms regulation. The Board has also adopted the principle that the Institute should not take foreign funds if this might compromise its independence.
The Governing Board has eight members appointed for five years by the Swedish Government. They are at present:
Professor Gunnar Myrdal, Stockholm, Sweden, Professor of Econo-mics, Chairman. Professor Hilding Eek, Stockholm, Sweden, Professor of Interna-tional Law, Vice Chairman. Academician Ivan Málek, Prague, Czechoslovakia, Professor of Microbiology. Mr. Leo Mates, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Director, Institute of Interna-tional Politics and Economics, Belgrade.
Professor Joseph Rotblat, London, United Kingdom, Professor of Physics, Secretary General, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.
Professor B. V. A. Röling, Groningen, Holland, Professor of Inter-national Law, Secretary General, International Peace Research Association.
Professor John Sanness, Oslo, Norway, Director, Institute of Inter-national Relations, Oslo. The Director of the Institute is ex officio a member of the Board.
The Board meets as a rule twice a year.
The Director, who is appointed by the Swedish Government, has the main responsibility for SIPRI's work programme. The Institute's first Director is Mr. Robert Neild of the United Kingdom. Mr. Neild was previously economic adviser to the British Treasury.
In conformity with the statutes, there is a Scientific Council of highly qualified scholars, statesmen and international civil servants. The Council has consultative functions.
The staff of the Institute is international, and consists now, No-vember 1969, of thirty-two people, of whom nineteen, including the Director and his assistant, are engaged on research. (There is a list of the staff on page 11.) The research workers come from nine different countries and from a wide variety of disciplines in both the natural and social sciences. As a rule they are employed to work on a special project.
The Institute has also engaged consultants inside and outside Sweden for specific tasks.
The first eighteen months of the Institute's existence were mainly devoted to problems of organisation and recruiting. The Director took up his position at the Institute in May 1967 and most of the scholars now at work in SIPRI arrived during the first half of 1968. At this time three major projects were started that are now nearing completion-the projects on the arms trade with the developing countries and on chemical and biological weapons, and the yearbook of world armaments and disarmament.
The following projects were carried out in 1968:
Seismic Methods of Monitoring Underground Explosions
and in June 1968 to discuss the state of the art of seismic test ban verification, a main outstanding issue to be settled before a com-prehensive test ban is possible.
Important new data, not published before, were presented by the experts, permitting the conclusion that it is now possible to detect and identify underground nuclear explosions down to a level of 20 to 60 kilotons in hard rock. It was also suggested that improved instru- mentation might lower that limit to 10 kilotons and that research in order to push the limit down further seemed worthwhile. These findings, which were agreed unanimously, represent a break-through in underground test ban control.
The report of the discussions and conclusions of the group of experts has attracted great interest, not least in the ENDC (Eighteen Nations Disarmament Committee) in Geneva, where the summary of the report was circulated as an official document in July 1968. The report, prepared by Dr. David Davies of Cambridge University, was printed in offset in October 1968 and in book form in the SIPRI series Stockholm Papers at the beginning of 1969.
In view of the great significance of this study the Board has decided to follow up the project by inviting the participants of the seismological group to convey any new findings in this field to Dr. Davies, who will produce an abstract once a year for distribution to interested parties.
In June 1968 a symposium was arranged in Stockholm to discuss a paper on "Contemporary Legal Problems in Ocean Development", prepared by Professor W. T. Burke, Ohio State University. The background to the project is that technology is rapidly advancing and allowing for the exploitation of the oceans for economic and military purposes.
The result of the symposium, in which experts from seven dif-ferent countries participated, was a report containing the conclusions arrived at, a summary of the discussions, Professor Burke's paper and the various written comments of the participants. An offset edi- tion was issued at the beginning of 1968 under the title "Towards a Better Use of the Oceans". In September 1969 the report ap-peared in book form in SIPRI's Monograph series.
The Board has decided to continue the project, focusing now on the military aspects of the uses of the sea-bed. A Swedish expert has been taken on as a consultant for this purpose.
A Swedish scholar, Mr. Ingemar Dörfer, was commissioned in 1968 to explore the problems of the use and development of communica- tion satellites and their political and technical implications. A book "Communication Satellites" was published early 1969 in the series Stockholm Papers.
Professor Loyal Gould, of Ohio State University, was commissioned from June to September 1968 to make a study of how the mass media were furnished with information from the disarmament nego- tiations in Geneva and how this news was reported. A quantitative analysis of the press coverage of the disarmament negotiations, prepared by Mrs. R. Forsberg of the SIPRI staff, has since then been added to Professor Gould's study. The full report will be published in the Stockholm Papers series in the last months of 1969 under the title "The ENDC and the Press".
SIPRI Yearbook of World Armaments and Disarmament
The Yearbook brings together in one place material on trends in world military expenditure, on the technological arms race, and on the progress or absence of progress in disarmament negotiations. It has extensive reference material on such matters as military expenditure, the trade in arms, nuclear tests and accidents, and conflicts.
The first edition, covering the events of 1968 and the first half of 1969, but also containing background material for the last 20 years, is being published on 19 November 1969. The project has been under the general direction of Mr. Frank Blackaby who has been assisted by most members of the SIPRI staff.
Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW)
The CBW project was the first project taken up by SIPRI. Originally it was to deal only with biological weapons. Later chemical weapons were added, since it appeared that many aspects were common to both BW and CW, and that it would be undesirable and unwise to isolate BW.
The aim of the project-with Swedish Professor Carl-Göran Hedén now in charge-is to analyse all relevant aspects of BW and CW, and to present a summary of the subject that can serve as a factual basis for political discussions and for negotiation of measures de-signed to reduce the dangers posed by CBW.
The possibility of banning the use and development of chemical and microbiological means of warfare is being investigated. The problems which such a ban must overcome are being studied, and a comprehensive report will be ready at the end of this year. This report will consider the legal, political, military and technical aspects of CBW. It will include a discussion of existing restraints on the use of CB weapons and ways of reinforcing them.
SIPRI was one of the three organisations invited by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to provide information to a group of experts appointed to preparing a report on the effects of use of CB weapons. In response to this invitation a series of draft chapters of the BCW report were circulated in preliminary form to the ex-pert group.
Inspection of Non-Production of Biological Weapons
The aim of this project is to study whether it is technically possible to discover if production of biological warfare agents on a scale of military relevance could be carried out in a non-secret microbiological research or production establishment.
The project has been supervised by a scientific group composed of Professor Carl-Göran Hedén acting as co-ordinator, and Professor Ivan Málek and Professor Joseph Rotblat, with Mr. Theodor Nemec, of the SIPRI staff, as secretary.
During the second half of 1968 and the first half of 1969, eight microbiological research establishments and six production establish-ments in nine European countries, East, West and non-aligned, were inspected.
Rapid Detection and Identification of BW Agents
Laboratory investigations are at present being carried out by SIPRI staff members, one working in Stockholm and the other in Prague.
The study in Sweden is aimed at using combined gaschromato-graph-mass-spectrometer techniques for detecting and identifying viruses in tissue cultures of human cells. It is being conducted by Pro-fessor Konstantin Sinyak from the Moscow Institute of Poliomyelitis working at the Departments of Mass-spectrometry and Bacteriological Bio-engineering at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm.
The project in Czechoslovakia is aimed at the study of antisera from conventional and germ-free animals immunized with well char- acterized Salmonella and E. coli strains. The investigation is being carried out by Dr. Åke Ljunggren of Sweden working in the Depart- ment of Immunology at the Institute of Microbiology in Prague.
Arms Trade with the Third World
The arms trade project aims to provide a definitive assessment of the flow of arms from the main weapons-producing countries to the rest of the world, with all the policy problems which this raises. The project is under the general direction of Mr. Frank Blackaby.
The arms trade team have completed estimates, in constant dollars, of the arms trade in major weapons-aircrafts, warships, tanks, missiles-with non-producing countries since 1950. Provisional ma- terial on this is presented in the Yearbook.
This report will be completed in the spring of 1970.
Atomic Energy and Disarmament
From August to September 1968, Dr. Marvin Kalkstein of the State University of New York, USA, visited SIPRI to write a paper about "International Arrangements and Control for the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Explosives".
Mr. Jan Prawitz-on leave from the Swedish Defence Research Institute until the end of October this year-has been at work on a study of nuclear suppliers' policies. Mr. Prawitz is now drafting his report which will be published in the series Stockholm Papers early in 1970, together with Mr. Kalkstein's study.
In October this year a new project was started on the role and functioning of intergovernmental organisations. The project will mainly focus on the UN family of organisations. It is undertaken
jointly by SIPRI and the Institute of International Economics of the University of Stockholm. SIPRI has for this purpose engaged Mr. Egon Glesinger, Austria, a former Assistant Director General of FAO, who will cooperate with Professor Gunnar Myrdal of the Institute of International Economics.
The staff of the Institute, in November 1969, were as follows:
|Mr. R. Neild||UK||Director|
|Mr. S. Hirdman||Sweden||Director's Assistant|
|Mr. F. Blackaby||UK||Yearbook Arms Trade|
|Mr. P. Davinic||Yugoslavia||Yearbook Arms Trade|
|Mrs. R. Forsberg||USA||Yearbook|
|Mr. E. Glesinger||Austria||International Organisations|
|Mr. J. Goldblat||Switzerland||Yearbook CBW|
|Miss E. Göransson||Sweden||Arms Trade|
|Mr. C.-G. Hedén||Sweden||CBW|
|Mr. R. Huisken||Australia||Arms Trade|
|Miss M. Kaldor||UK||Arms Trade|
|Miss S. Landgren||Sweden||Arms Trade|
|Mr. M. Leitenberg||USA||Yearbook CBW|
|Miss K. Lissakers||USA||International Organisations|
|Mr. A. Ljunggren||Sweden||CBW|
|Mr. T. Nemec||Czechoslovakia||CBW|
|Mr. J. Perry Robinson||UK||CBW|
|Mr. H. von Schreeb||Sweden||Yearbook CBW|
|Mr. K. Sinyak||USSR||CBW|
|Mrs. G. von Döbeln||Sweden||Librarian|
|Miss I. Hellgren||Sweden||Accountant|
Office staff: Miss K. Bernhager, Sweden; Mrs. G. Brandborn, UK; Mr. S. Falk Sweden; Mrs. G. Fredholm, Sweden; Mrs. M. Gruvén, USA; Mr. P. Koel, Sweden; Mrs. J. Meurling, Sweden; Mrs. R. Proctor, USA; Miss L. Sjöberg, Sweden; Mr. L. Ståhle, Sweden; Mrs. M. Vuorenkoski, Finland.
The following SIPRI publications have already appeared:
Stockholm Papers (short reports in paperback size)
|1. Communication Satellites, 53 pages||7.00|
| 2. Seismic Methods for Monitoring Underground Explosions,
|Towards a Better Use of the Ocean, 231 pages||48.00|
| SIPRI Yearbook of World Armaments and Disarmament 1968/69, 440 pages
(Also available in paperback edition.)
The following publications will appear shortly:
|3. The ENDC and the Press||December 1969|
|4. Nuclear Control Problems||January 1970|
| Chemical and Biological Warfare-Developments,
Dangers, and Disarmament Possibilities
|The Arms Trade with the Third World||Spring 1970|
All publications may be obtained from the Institute's publishers:
Almqvist & Wiksell, P.O. Box 62, S-101 20 Stockholm 1, Sweden.
The Monographs and the Yearbook are also being published in the
Humanities Press, Inc., 303 Park Avenue South,
New York, N.Y. 100 10, United States
and in the United Kingdom:
Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd., 3 Henrietta Street,
London W.C. 2., United Kingdom.